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結核病防治核心信息及知識要點
作者:佚名    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2019/3/22

 

    2019324日是第24世界防治結核病日,今年的活動主題是:開展終結結核行動,共建共享健康中國

  一、肺結核是長期嚴重危害人民健康的慢性傳染病 

  1.結核病又叫癆病,由結核桿菌引起,主要侵害人體肺部,發生肺結核。

  2.肺結核在我國法定報告甲乙類傳染病中發病和死亡數排在第2位。

  3.得了肺結核如發現不及時,治療不徹底,會對健康造成嚴重危害,甚至可引起呼吸衰竭和死亡,給患者和家庭帶來沉重的經濟負擔。

  二、肺結核主要通過呼吸道傳播,人人都有可能被感染 

  1.肺結核是呼吸道傳染病,很容易發生傳播。

  2.肺結核病人通過咳嗽、咳痰、打噴嚏將結核菌播散到空氣中,健康人吸入帶有結核菌的飛沫即可能受到感染。

  3.與肺結核病人共同居住,同室工作、學習的人都是肺結核病人的密切接觸者,有可能感染結核菌,應及時到醫院去檢查排除。

  4.艾滋病毒感染者、免疫力低下者、糖尿病病人、塵肺病人、老年人等都是容易發病的人群,應每年定期進行結核病檢查。

  三、咳嗽、咳痰2周以上,應懷疑得了肺結核,要及時就診 

  1.肺結核的常見癥狀是咳嗽、咳痰,如果這些癥狀持續2周以上,應高度懷疑得了肺結核,要及時到醫院看病。

  2.肺結核還會伴有痰中帶血、低燒、夜間出汗、午后發熱、胸痛、疲乏無力、體重減輕、呼吸困難等癥狀。

  3.懷疑得了肺結核,要及時到當地結核病定點醫療機構就診。縣(區、旗)、地市、省(區、市)等區域均設有結核病定點醫療機構。

  四、不隨地吐痰,咳嗽、打噴嚏時掩口鼻,戴口罩可以減少肺結核的傳播 

  1.肺結核病人咳嗽、打噴嚏時,應避讓他人、遮掩口鼻。

  2.肺結核病人不要隨地吐痰,要將痰液吐在有消毒液的帶蓋痰盂里;不方便時可將痰吐在消毒濕紙巾或密封痰袋里。

  3.肺結核病人盡量不去人群密集的公共場所,如必須去,應當佩戴口罩。

  4.居家治療的肺結核病人,應盡量與他人分室居住,保持居室通風,佩戴口罩,避免家人被感染。

  5.肺結核可防可治。加強營養,提高人體抵抗力,有助于預防肺結核。

  五、規范全程治療,絕大多數患者可以治愈,還可避免傳染他人 

  1.肺結核治療全程為6-8個月,耐藥肺結核治療全程為18-24個月。

  2.按醫生要求規范治療,絕大多數肺結核病人都可以治愈。自己恢復健康,同時保護家人。

  3.肺結核病人如果不規范治療,容易產生耐藥肺結核。病人一旦耐藥,治愈率低,治療費用高,社會危害大。

 

 


   

 (來源:國家衛生健康委員會)

  

文章錄入:保健    責任編輯:保健 

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